When it comes to house construction, building foundations is the vital starting point. Your foundations will effectively distribute your new home’s weight and prevent the spreading of the subsoil. This prevents an unequal settlement of the structure that could result in structural problems in the long run. Richard Earls Construction LLC will give you more ideas and knowledge about House Foundation and construction works.

Since mistakes at this stage can turn out to be pretty expensive, it’s prudent to double-check every measurement, list them on the plans, and ensure that everyone is working from that. Be prepared to become flexible in case the excavation process brings out some unexpected ground conditions.

So, regardless if you wish to have an idea of what your builder is about to do, taking on the project yourself, or you’re project managing, you can use this guide to lay out your building foundations. Generally, you will need:

– Compressible material to line the trenches

– Mesh reinforcement in the concrete of the foundation

– Cut metal pins to apply as markers

– A polythene slip membrane

– To be familiar with any lead-times. In case the engineers have made a foundation that needs reinforcement cages, they might need to be produced off-site

– Many pairs of wellies and rakes

– To think of a way to get the services into the property. Therefore, get some ducting or lengths of pipe to take through the foundation concrete

1. Begin by Marking Out Your Level Datum Point

Basically, a datum point is a reference point from which more measurements can be made. This point can depend on a benchmark, an existing building, or a finished floor level. Since this datum point is essential, each height measurement is relative to this particular point. That means that any errors could lead to future issues, especially if there’s a height restriction on that building.

2. Determine the Material You Need to Move

Measure the amount of material that requires to be removed from that site to return at the finished floor level after each layer of flooring material (screed, concrete, and insulation) has gone down. At this stage, time spent with a site-level will make things much easier in the future when the digger might not reach the places that haven’t been dug deep enough.

3. Mark Out Your Foundations Using String Lines

Begin by marking out the walls. Create timber obstacles at the end of every wall, far from where the digger will require to be. Where there’s limited space, make use of corner pins and create the hurdles once the concrete is in.

4. Marking Out the Trenches

By referring to your specific datum point, start lining up your footings. If it is the extensions, don’t assume an existing structure is square; choose the side you want to be square, then create a line, and square off that line. Using Pythagoras’s theorem is the simplest way to do this. However, a majority of modern laser levels come with a square function that does all of this.

5. Mark Every Corner

If you have two lines created at 90°, every other measurement can be derived from this point, as long as all junctions and corners are marked. Check the width of your walls and give some room of about 150mm for both sides. With the string line as your guide, use the marker paint to mark the trenches.

6. Dig the Foundation Trenches

You are now ready to begin digging. Ensure that your site level is set to the depth you want to dig and check it regularly. The building control inspector will then determine how far down you have to go; they’ll inspect at this stage and then advise you.

Most of the time, building foundations are the riskiest aspect of a building project. With these simple steps, you now have an idea of what building foundation entails.

Richard Earls
Richard Earls Construction is a general contractor that has 28 years of experience and provides the New Orleans area with foundation specialist, new home construction, residential construction, commercial construction and more.

Modern tents are made from a range of different fabrics and each of them will provide you with some benefits but will also have their problems. If you are looking at buying a clearspan tent building, or a simple 2-man tent, you should consider what the fabrics offer. Once you understand the different fabrics, you will be able to determine which the best one for your needs is.

Cotton Canvas Tent

At one point, canvas was the go-to fabric for tents, but this has become rarer these days. The primary issue with this fabric is the weight which is much heavier than modern man-made fabrics used by other tents. However, cotton canvas is one of the best tents for staying cool in the summer and warm during the cold nights.

Cotton canvas is also able to breathe naturally which makes it less prone to condensation. The only issue is that you need to weather the tent before you use it. If you do not do this, you will face some leaks during the first rains.

Polyester Tents

The most common fabric used in modern tents is polyester and will have a variety of coatings. When using a polyester tent, you will need to make note of the coating that is used because it will offer certain benefits. This fabric is one of the more durable ones and will not shrink or expand when wet.

Polyester tents are also not affected as much by the sun as nylon tents. This is something that you need to consider if you are going to be camping during the summer months.

Nylon Tents

Small modern tents are generally made of nylon because it is light-weight and will not absorb water. Nylon will also be used for the simplest and cheapest tents on the market. More expensive nylon tents will generally have a range of coatings which make them better than the average tent.

A problem that you can face with nylon is that the fabric will slacken when it is damp. This means that you will have to tighten your guy lines to ensure that the tent stays in good shape. Nylon is also more vulnerable to UV rays which means that strong sunlight is going to shorten the lifespan of your tent.

PVC Coated Canvas Tents

Large frame tents and trailer tents will generally be made with PVC coated canvas to ensure that they are waterproof and strong. The primary issue with this fabric is the weight which is much greater than other man-made fabrics. Additionally, condensation can form on the coated fabric and these tents will need to have proper ventilation to overcome this.

Which Fabric Is the Best?

The best fabric will depend on the type of tent that you need, how you are going to be using it and when you will use it. If you are going to camp during the summer months, you should consider polyester because it is not damaged by the sun as much. If you are looking for a large tent, PVC canvas is a good option. However, if you want a cheap tent then nylon is the best solution.

Carol Fontius
Carol Fontius is the founder of Creative Tent International, which expanded to manufacturing in 2004 after selling engineered tents to the resort and US military markets.

Should you consider an Iceland glacier hike while vacationing there? If you’re going to go to the trouble of flying in from another continent to visit this magical place, then it’s worth at least spending a few minutes considering all the potential adventures available to you while you’re here. After all, when will you come back? You might fall in love with the place enough to make a return trip, but there’s always something to be said for seizing the moment, since you future vacations might be to other places you have yet to discover and enjoy for what they’re worth.

At first thought, you might consider glacier hikes in Iceland to be dangerous affairs. After glaciers are made up of ice and snow, so hiking on them would be covering slippery and treacherous terrain, right? It’s certainly possible. However, actually going out freestyle or into the actual wilderness is the most extreme form of glacier hiking possible. The outdoor enthusiast crowd might just be into that, and if you’re a member of this particular demographic, then passing up the chance to savor the landscape of Iceland might not be something you should do, particularly if you have the vigor, equipment, and skill to handle such an undertaking.

On the other hand, if you’re more looking for getting some exercise while on vacation, as a shift or break from the constant sitting that happens in airplanes, restaurants, and vehicles driving you around, there are many places in Iceland where you can do a glacier hike on a trail that is actually somewhat permanent. These are much safer to traverse, and at difficult points might even have steps and guardrails.

Also, in some locations, there might be something called a glacier trail that is actually just a trail on solid ground that gives great views of glaciers. If you’re looking for great photos and vistas to burn into your memory, this might be just the way to go to get some exercise.

Of course in all three cases, you can often find guided tours where experienced leaders organize the hikes. That can be great for many reasons. For starters, you head out with a group of people, so there is an immediate social aspect to it, on top of the safety in numbers. You’ll also be supervised by those that know how to handle such terrain and can either provide assistance or summon it immediately in the event of an accident or injury.

Iceland is far from the only place on the planet with glaciers, but it has a very high concentration of them. The placement of the nation in the North Atlantic means that its days are incredibly long in the summer season, so you can spend quite a few hours of the day witnessing the geographic glory of this fascinating place. While often listed as a European nation, it’s technically an above-water intersection of two tectonic plates, one for Europe and one for North America. You can even visit the gorge where this happens.

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Matthias Johannesson
Matthias is an Iceland resident and owner of Iceland Advice, a travel company based in Reykjavik, Iceland. Iceland Advice works with top tour operators in Iceland to provide unforgettable experiences.